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新亚博买球网址中国成立后的几次体制改革与启

日期:2022-09-19
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亚博买球网址中国现代国防工业起源于1860年代开始的洋务运动。从1989年张志东在武汉建立我国第一家装备齐全的武器厂汉阳兵工厂,到中华人民共和国成立前60年,中国国防工业的发展不仅小,而且非常减缓。中国国防工业的真正崛起和快速发展发生在新中国成立60年后。由于特定的历史背景,政府在新中国国防工业的发展中发挥了非常特殊的作用。政府在军工运行中的职能和作用经历了一个不断变化的过程。在这一过程的不同阶段,政府职能具有不同的特点,对军工企业的运行效率产生不同的影响。

一、计划经济体制下政府全能角色的功能调整(1949-1978)

新中国成立之初,我国国防工业基础非常薄弱。当时,全国共有军械企业162家,其中解放区成立的人民军企业92家,国民党政府遗留的军械企业68家。 [①]这些军械企业只能生产枪支等轻武器,对飞机、舰船等重型装备进行简单维修,不能满足新中国国防安全的需要。这一时期,国防工业发展的指导思想完全否定了市场力量的作用。政府干预和监管成为军事科研生产资源配置的唯一形式。一个人秀”的角色。政府不仅是国防军工产品的唯一购买者,还是军工行业的唯一投资人、监管者和监管者,甚至是军工行业的直接经营者。这一时期的政府职能主要体现在管理机构的变化和职能范围的变化和调整上。

亚博买球网址为加快新中国国防工业的发展,中国政府全面参与和加大对军工发展的干预力度,成立了专门的军工管理机构,并不断进行调整在实践中。新中国成立后,为促进国防工业和民用工业的发展,1949年10月19日成立重工业部,集中管理兵器工业。 1950年,重工业部成立了航空工业筹备组和兵器工业办公室,成立了电信工业局和船舶工业局,负责组织军工生产和军工企业的调整。随着朝鲜战争的爆发,国防工业的重要性日益凸显。为加快国防工业发展步伐,中央决定加强对国防工业的宏观管理。 1951年1月4日,中共中央成立了中央军委军械工业委员会。 4月17日,航空产业管理委员会成立。 4月19日,重工部兵工办改制为兵工总局,统一规划、协调全国兵工生产建设工作,由军工委领导。中央军委。同时,为加快航空工业建设,国务院、中央军委将航空工业筹备组改组为重工业部航空工业局。 1952年8月7日,成立第二机械工业部,统一管理国防工业。原属重工部的兵器工业和航空工业,划归二机部管理。 1953年4月,电信工业局划归机械二部管理。我国国防工业实现了全国集中统一管理。

1956年11月16日,第三机械工业部成立,主管核工业建设和核武器研制。 1958年2月,为适应军民融合的需要,原管理国防工业的第二机械工业部与第一机械工业部、电机制造工业部合并,组建新的第一机械工业部。机械工业部,主管全国机械工业。同时,管理核工业的第三机械工业部更名为第二机械工业部。同年10月,中央批准成立国防部国防科学技术委员会。 1959年12月,中央决定成立中央军委国防工业委员会,对国防工业进行集中管理。 1960年,第一机械工业部从管理国防工业的职能中分离出来,成立第三机械工业部,管理国防工业。同年年底,航空、船舶、电子工业研究所从工业部门分离出来,与军队相关科研单位重组,成立专业研究所。 1961年12月20日,国务院成立国防工业办公室,将其纳入军队编制,管理二机部、三机部和国防科委范围内的工作。此后,国防工委被撤销。 1963年,国务院成立第四机械工业部管理无线电工业,第五机械工业部管理兵器工业,第六机械工业部管理船舶工业。从此,三机部只管航空业。 1964年11月23日,中央决定成立第七机械工业部,统一管理航天工业的科研、设计、试制和基地建设。

1970年,国务院机构和人员大为简化,但国防部和第二至第七机械工业部不变,划归军委办公室管辖。与此同时,国务院国防工业办公室和中央国防工业政治部被撤销部门。 1973年9月10日,经中央批准,成立国防工业办公室,由国务院和中央军委领导,以国务院为主体。主要任务是统筹推进国防工业生产建设和科研工作。 1974年4月,国务院、中央军委决定成立导弹工业总局,外称第八机械工业总局。之后,撤销了第八届机械工业总局,成立了第八届机械工业部。 1977年11月14日,国务院、中央军委决定成立中央军委科技装备委员会,统一领导国防科技和国防工业生产。改革开放初期,负责国防工业和装备生产管理的机构包括国务院第二至第八机械工业部,以及国务院和国务院的双重领导。中央军委、国防科委、国防工业办公室、科技部等,均被纳入军事系列。委员会。其中,国防科委管理第七机械工业部的工作,国防工业办公室管理第八机械工业的工作。事工。

亚博买球网址通过这一时期军队管理体制的变化可以发现,政府对国防工业的管理具有以下明显特点:一是政府对国防工业采取高度集中的管理模式。军械工业委员会、国防科技委员会、国防工业委员会、科技装备委员会等管理机构,由军队管理部门(中央军委)直接领导,国防部),体现了国防工业的完整服务。用于军事目的的特性。二是政府对国防工业的具体管理活动实行“军民分离”、“产业分离”、“科研生产分离”的管理办法。国防工业由专门的政府管理机构专门管理,有具体的规划和指导。期间虽有“军民结合”的思想,如1949年成立重工业部,统一领导军民工业; 1958年2月,原管理国防工业的二机部与一机部、电机部合并,组建新的一机部,主管全国机械工业。但很快,国防工业就由一个专门而独立的军事管理部门领导。不仅如此,国防工业的各个行业也由专门的政府管理机构管理。改革开放之初,核工业、航空工业、电子工业、兵器工业、造船工业、航天工业、导弹工业分别归二至八机械工业部管辖。不仅如此,国防工业的科研生产活动也相互分离,由国防科委和国防工业办公室两个不同的部门管理。三是军队管理机构调整变化频繁。一般每隔几年就需要调整一次,有时一年内调整几次,相对缺乏稳定性。

这一时期,政府对国防工业的管理主要是行政手段和指令性计划。军工的资源配置、产业发展规划和空间布局都体现在政府的强制性规划中,军工发展规划在整个国民经济发展规划中处于非常突出的位置。例如,“一五”期间,在苏联援建的150个实际建设项目中,国防工业企业有44家,其中航空工业12家,电子工业10家,国防工业企业16家。武器工业,航空航天工业 2 个,造船工业 2 个。 4. [2] 1960年代,特别是“三五”之后,国防工业在政府的强制性规划中被优先考虑。 “三五”的中心任务是:一是低标准基本解决温饱问题;二是兼顾国防新一轮中国政府机构改革,解决国防所需常规武器,突破前沿技术。三是强化基础产业在农业和国防工业中的作用。支持。 [③]从“三五”开始,我国用近三个五年计划实施以“三线”建设为重点的国防工业发展战略,并投入大量国家资金经济资源。 “三线”建设期间新一轮中国政府机构改革,1965年至1980年,我国13个省区市的三线建设经历了三个五年计划,总投资超过2050亿元,人力达数百万人。其中,1970年制定的“四五”规划中,三线建设的投资建设项目占国家计划的一半以上。

中国政府在计划经济体制下在国防工业中发挥的特殊作用,对于巩固国防和发展经济的效率,既有积极作用,也有一定的消极因素。其积极作用主要体现在以下几个方面:一是在较短时间内建立了较为完善的国防工业体系,实现了国防工业的跨越式发展。政府利用自身在资源配置中的强制作用,集中资源发展国防工业,使我国在“一五”期间先后建立了兵器、电子、船舶、航空、核、航天等现代国防工业。年计划”期间。与新中国成立相比,国防工业的发展跨越了几个发展阶段,走过了西方国家一两百年走过的路。二是军工生产能力快速提升,武器装备研制生产实现质的突破。这一时期的国防工业不仅专业门类齐全,而且有一套基本的科研方法。人才队伍素质高、实力强,装备生产能力和水平显着提高。此时,不仅具备生产飞机、舰船等大型装备的研发能力,还具备尖端技术装备的研发生产能力。以原子弹、导弹、人造卫星“两弹一星”为代表的先进军事技术和产品相继研制成功。成功的。三是有效促进我国高新技术产业和内陆经济发展。国防工业是高新技术产业。国防工业的快速发展,不仅促进了武器装备生产水平的提高,也带动了冶金、机械、化工、材料等一大批工业部门的进步和发展。经过十余年“三线”建设,促进了内陆省区经济繁荣和科技文化进步,为内陆建设带来发展机遇,为进一步协调发展创造了必要条件。我国的区域经济。

亚博买球网址但是,政府在国防工业运行中的无所不能也带来了许多负面影响。政府作为唯一的投资方,承担了国防工业发展的全部风险,不仅让政府背负重担,而且造成企业缺乏经济利益和动力,低军事生产的效率和效率,使得社会资源无法得到有效配置。不仅如此,由于政府在国防工业发展中扮演着“全能政府”的角色,几乎完全否定了市场机制的调节作用,而且由于国防工业的先天缺陷而存在政府失灵的现象。政府方面,国防工业的运营效率遭受不同程度的损失。特别值得一提的是,由于国防工业发展纯属军事导向,不仅国防工业发展越来越偏离经济效益的目标,而且国防工业只能发挥服务军队职能单一,不能有效发挥作用。服务经济功能。主要表现在以下几个方面:一是国防工业规模过大,资源投入过多,挤压了大量的经济建设资源,制约了整个国家的经济发展; “洞”的布局和结构导致军工生产运输成本和协作成本高,生产效率和经济效益低。不仅军民之间缺乏必要的分工与合作新一轮中国政府机构改革,即使军工内部不同行业之间、科研与生产之间没有有效的分工与合作,资源重复配置和浪费现象较为突出,资源配置效率较低。低。

二、适应社会主义市场经济体制改革要求的政府职能转变(1979-)

1978年12月,中共十一届三中全会迎来了改革开放的新时代。党和国家工作重心转向经济建设。国防工业从服从和服务国家战略出发,实行军民结合发展。政策从单一的国防建设向四化服务转变,特别是在从计划经济体制向社会主义市场经济体制转变的过程中,政府对国防工业的干预和管理也发生了根本性的变化,而政府已经开始通过市场的渠道,利用市场机制对国防工业进行干预和规范。主要表现是军工企事业单位的市场微观主体地位初步确立,开始为市场开发产品、获取生产要素。政府不再是军工领域的唯一投资方,开始借助市场机制干预国防工业的运行。这种变化主要体现在军队管理机构的进一步改革、管理体制的转变、管理方式和手段的转变、市场机制的逐步引入等方面。

亚博买球网址为适应改革开放的需要,1979年3月24日,国务院、中央军委决定,二、七机部各企事业单位及各省,直辖市、自治区实行双重领导,以部为主体。 10月8日,中共中央决定成立中央科研协调委员会新一轮中国政府机构改革,负责协调国家科​​委、国防科工委三个系统的科研工作。委员会、国防工业办公室。 12月28日,国务院决定四、机械六部归国家机械委员会集中领导。 1981年9月7日,国务院、中央军委决定七、合并八机部,组建新的七机部。 1982年5月4日,根据全国人大决定,二、三、四、五、七、机八师更名为核、分别是航空、电子和武器。 、航天工业部和中国船舶工业集团公司。 5月10日,国务院、中央军委批准国防科委、国防工业办公室、中央军委科技装备委员会办公室(军委科技装备办公室)合并。 )组建中国人民解放军国防科技工业委员会。科技工业委员会(简称国防科工委)。隶属于中央军委,接受国务院和中央军委双重领导。 1983年3月14日,国务院、中央军委决定将电子和船舶相关武器装备的科研生产工作集中到国防科工委,与国家经济部实行双重领导。和贸易委员会。 1986年撤销机械兵器工业部,成立全国机械工业委员会,对全国机械工业实施统一规划。 1988年4月9日,第七届全国人民代表大会第一次会议决定,撤销航空航天工业部,设立航天工业部,撤销国家机械委员会和电子工业部,设立航空航天工业部。机电行业;撤销核工业部,设立通用核工业。公司由能源部归口管理。 5月,国务院总理办公厅决定,中国船舶工业集团公司归机电部归口管理。 1990年1月8日,国务院、中央军委决定成立中国兵器工业总公司。 1991年,决定成立中国电子工业总公司。 1993年新一轮中国政府机构改革,撤销航天工业部,成立航空工业总公司、航天工业总公司。

1998年3月10日,九届全国人民代表大会第一次会议通过《关于国务院机构改革方案的决定》,撤销1982年5月10日成立的国防科工委,根据国防科工委“军政分开”、“供需分开”的原则,原国防科工委对国防工业的管理职能,国家计委国防部和军工企业承担的政府职能统一组成新的国防科委,作为国务院职能管理部门之一。 保留国家航天局和国家原子能机构,对外代表国家,对内担任国防科工委机构。同时,以原国防科工委和总参装备部为主体,成立了中央军委领导的总装备部。 4月,新成立的中华人民共和国国防科技工业委员会和中国人民解放军总装备部正式成立。总装备部的职能是:负责制定武器装备发展战略和科研计划,根据武器装备建设需要组织订货。新一届国防科技工业委员会的主要职责是:负责制定军工事业发展规划和法规,实施行业管理;配合总装备部,负责制定和组织实施科研计划,根据订货合同组织生产,对订货合同进行监督。落实和保障军事装备的生产和供应;国防科工委会同总装备部负责制定军事研究和产能调整计划并组织实施;承担国家航天局和国家原子能机构的管理职能。

2007年,党的十七大明确提出加快行政管理体制改革和建设服务型政府的发展目标,提出“加快政企分开”政资分离、政务分离、政府与市场中介组织分离、规范行政行为,加强行政执法部门建设,减少和规范行政审批,减少政府对微观经济运行的干预新特点对如何进一步完善政府对国防工业和装备科研生产的管理提出了新的目标和要求。拱体系,……,走中国特色军民融合发展道路。”[⑤]根据党的十七大有关精神,2008年召开的中国共产党第十一次全国代表大会全国人民代表大会第一次会议对国防工业管理行政部门进行了调整和改革。国防科工委、信息产业部、国务院信息化工作办公室、国家烟草专卖局合并组建工业和信息化部。委员会。改革开放后,国防工业管理体制不断深化,政府对国防工业的干预和管理模式发生了重大变化。主要体现在以下几个方面:

一是逐步转变以军事机构为主导的供需一体化管理模式,向供需分离、各司其职的管理模式转变。新中国成立后,政府对军工行业的管理采取了由军队机构主导的供需一体化的管理模式,具有典型的“军事化”管理特点。中央军委、国防部及其下属部门不仅承担管理武器装备需求的职能,还承担管理军工事业的职能。军工管理部门虽然也有相应的行政机构(机械部2~8个),但其工作是在军工机构的领导下进行的。改革开放后的一段时期,仍沿用改革开放前的传统做法,但其具体形式发生了变化。过去,国防科委、国防工委、科技装备委员会负责军工分工。针对这一制度在市场经济条件下暴露出来的弊端,1998年,中国人民解放军总装备部和国务院国防科技工业委员会成立。 , respectively undertake the functions of equipment demand management and military industry management.

The second is to gradually transform from a management model that does not separate government and enterprise to a management model that separates government and enterprise. The government's management of the defense industry has long been basically undifferentiated between government and enterprise. Government departments exercise overall control over military scientific research and production units in terms of resource allocation, plan formulation and implementation. Military scientific research and production units are in fact a subsidiary organization of government departments. After the reform and opening up, in line with the market-oriented reform, major reforms were gradually carried out on the military management model in accordance with the principle of "separation of government and enterprise". First, the relevant government industry management agencies were abolished, and the Shipbuilding, Nuclear, Weapons, Aviation, Aerospace, and Electronics Industry Corporations were established, but the Military Industry Corporation still assumed certain government functions. In 1998, further in accordance with the principle of "separation of government and enterprises", the government functions of the General Industrial Corporation were separated and transferred to the National Defense Science, Technology and Industry Commission, and based on the General Military Industrial Corporation, it was reorganized into the top ten military industry group companies through spin-off. In 2002, the former Military Industry Research Institute of the Ministry of Information Industry was formed into China Electronics Technology Group Corporation, which changed the number of military industry group companies from ten to eleven, commonly known as the eleven major military industry group companies. In 2009, in order to better meet the needs of market-oriented reform and accelerate the development of the aviation industry, the Aviation Industry Corporation of China and the Aviation Industry Corporation of China merged to form the Aviation Industry Corporation of China. Each military industry group company is registered in accordance with the "Company Law", authorized by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, as the representative of the state-owned asset investor, to manage the wholly-owned enterprises and holding enterprises under its jurisdiction, and implement enterprise operation.

The third is to gradually transform from a management model that does not separate government and capital to a management model that separates government and capital. Through 1998 and 2003 government administrative system reform and function adjustment, in accordance with the principle of "separation of government and capital", the National Defense Science, Technology and Industry Commission, as the administrative department of the State Council in charge of the national defense science and technology industry, has its responsibilities related to the construction of laws, regulations and systems for the national defense science and technology industry, System reform, capability structure layout, weapon equipment development strategy planning and scientific research and production organization, fixed asset investment, quality, safety, measurement, standard, "five elements" management and guidance of the management of military electronics industry, management of funds involved in national defense technology and industrial construction, foreign exchanges important aspects such as cooperation and undertaking the daily work of the Central Committee Offic e. After the reform of the government's administrative management system and the adjustment of functions in 2008, the establishment of the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense under the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology is an important step towards a service-oriented government. In terms of state-owned assets management, the State-owned Assets Management Commission (SASAC), a special agency of the State Council, performs the duties of state-owned asset contributors, manages the assets of the military industry group company, the main body of the national defense science and technology industry, and is responsible for the military industry group company. Performance appraisal management.

Fourth, it is gradually transforming from the management mode of division of the military industry to a centralized and unified management mode. For a long time, the government has adopted a separate management model for the management of different industries in the military industry. The nuclear, aviation, electronics, weapons, ships, aerospace and missile industries are divided into different industries and responsible for the division of labor, and it is difficult to coordinate and coordinate with each other. After the reform and opening up, a centralized and unified management model was gradually adopted in response to the drawbacks exposed by this system. First, the aviation, aerospace, as well as weapons, electronics and other similar business management departments were merged, and the State Council National Defense Science and Technology Industry Department was established to centrally and unified management of the entire defense industry. In addition, in 2008, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology was newly established, and the National Defense Science, Technology and Industry Bureau was established under the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, which also helped to break the military-civilian separation system and gradually establish a military-civilian integration system.

After the reform and opening up, the transformation of government management functions is not only reflected in the military management system, but also in the application of specific management methods and means. Before the reform and opening up, the government's management methods for the military industry were mainly prescriptive plans and administrative methods. After the reform and opening up, the government's management methods for the military industry have undergone important changes. The government's means of adjusting the plans of the military industry are mainly to formulate long-term plans and medium and long-term plans for the development of military products, and to sign military order contracts with military scientific research and production units, and mainly focus on the scientific research and production of military special products. As for the scientific research and production of civilian products and some dual-use military-civilian products in the military scientific research and production sector, they are regulated through the role of market mechanisms. Traditionally used administrative means have been gradually replaced by legal means. In order to meet the needs of the rule of law economy, a series of relevant laws and regulations have been promulgated and implemented.

Especially since 2000, the state has significantly strengthened the legal construction of equipment scientific research and production management. The State Council promulgated and implemented the "Several Opinions on Encouraging and Guiding the Development of Private and Other Non-Public Economy" and other relevant regulations. The State Council and the Central Military Commission promulgated and implemented the Regulations on the Administration of Licensing for Scientific Research and Production of Weapons and Equipment. The Central Military Commission has successively promulgated a series of regulations such as "Equipment Regulations", "Equipment Scientific Research Regulations", "Equipment Procurement Regulations" and "Equipment Maintenance Regulations". The General Armament Department has formulated and issued supporting regulations such as "Regulations on the Management of Equipment Procurement Plans", "Regulations on the Management of Qualification Examination of Equipment Manufacturers", and "Regulations on the Management of Equipment Procurement Methods and Procedures". The National Defense Science, Technology and Industry Committee has promulgated and implemented the "Implementation Measures for the Licensing of Scientific Research and Production of Weapons and Equipment", the "Detailed Rules for the Administration of the License for the Scientific Research and Production of Military Products in the Civil Sector", the "Regulations on the Standardization of the Research and Production of Weapons and Equipment", and the "Interim Provisions on the Quality Supervision and Administration of Military Products". ", "National Defense Science and Technology Industry Industrial Policy Outline", "Military Products Export Management List", "Guiding Opinions on Non-public Economic Participation in National Defense Science and Technology Industry Construction", "Several Opinions on Deepening the Reform of National Defense Science and Technology Industry Investment System" and other relevant regulations. In order to improve the security system for scientific research and production of weapons and equipment, the State Secrecy Bureau, the National Defense Science and Technology Commission, and the General Armament Department have jointly promulgated and implemented the "Administrative Measures for the Examination and Certification of Confidentiality Qualifications for Weapons and Equipment Scientific Research and Production Units". In order to promote the shareholding reform of military industrial enterprises, the National Defense Science and Technology Commission, together with the National Development and Reform Commission and the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, issued and implemented the "Guiding Opinions on Promoting the Shareholding Reform of Military Industrial Enterprises" and other regulations. By regulating the behavior of enterprises and governments by legal means, the government's regulation and intervention in the military industry has gradually stepped onto the track of legalization, thus providing a favorable institutional environment for the full play of the regulating role of the market mechanism. The government's intervention and management of the military industry also pays more attention to the application of economic means, and regulates the economic activities of military research and production units through a series of economic means such as taxation, investment, and finance.

The transformation of government functions in the operation of the national defense industry not only pays more attention to the rational positioning of government functions, but also pays attention to and exerts the regulatory role of the market mechanism, thus playing a positive role in improving the operational efficiency of the national defense industry. Mainly as follows: First, establish the independent procurement subject status of the military department, so that it can formulate more feasible development plans for weapons and equipment based on military technology, modern warfare, national military strategy and security environment, etc., and make careful calculations under the constraints of military expenditure expectations. Acting as a savvy buyer can not only save the procurement cost of weapons and equipment, improve the procurement efficiency of weapons and equipment, and promote the rapid development of weapons and equipment, but also provide external pressure for military scientific research and production units, forcing military scientific research and production to strengthen management and continuously improve military scientific research and production. efficiency and corporate economic benefits, thereby improving the efficiency of resource allocation. The second is to gradually establish a centralized and unified administrative department of the military industry in accordance with the principle of separation of supply and demand of military products. On the one hand, the government administrative department can specialize in formulating the development plan and regulations of the military industry and other government functions, which will help to form a relatively complete macro-control system and Administration in accordance with the law can improve the government's administrative capacity and administrative efficiency; on the other hand, it can break the long-standing industry management pattern of fragmentation, multi-leadership, and independent governance, which is helpful to break industry restrictions and enable market mechanisms to be more adequate between different industries. This not only improves the social division of labor and cooperation in the military industry, but also further optimizes the allocation of military resources.

亚博买球网址However, due to the fact that my country is in the historical period of economic system transformation, the market economy system is not yet perfect, the influence of some negative traditional concepts is deeply rooted, and there are still certain defects in the role of the government. [⑥] In terms of military-government relations, the relationship between the military and administrative departments is simply referred to as "supply and demand", and it is believed that the national defense science and technology industry authority represents the interests of the national defense military industry, and the General Armament Department represents the military's interests, resulting in some discrepancies such as policy formulation. coordination issues. For example, the National Defense Science, Technology and Industry Authority under the State Council began to formulate the Law on National Defense Scientific Research and Production, and the General Armament Department began to formulate the Regulations on the Procurement of Weapons and Equipment; Catalogue of designated places for procurement of weapons and equipment; the competent department of national defense science, technology and industry of the State Council promulgated the standards for scientific research and production of military products, and the General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army promulgated the acceptance standards for weapons and equipment, etc. In the relationship between government and capital, there are also many inconsistencies between the State Council's national defense science, technology and industry authority and the SASAC. For example, the function of the State Council's national defense science, technology and industry authority is to manage affairs, while the SASAC "manages assets" and "manages people", so the management of "things", "assets" and "people" in the national defense science, technology and industry authority is not unified. In addition, there is a big gap between the State Council's national defense science, technology and industry authority and the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of State-owned assets management objectives and assessment methods. Generally speaking, the government's function of managing the defense industry is not yet in place, and it is accustomed to some things that should not be managed, cannot be managed and cannot be managed well. With the continuous deepening of the reform of the socialist market economic system, it is objectively necessary to continue to transform and improve the government's management of the national defense industry in practice.